...A third factor, which strongly intensified the effect of the other two, was the social and physical disruption visited upon the Indian. , The impossibility of the physical presence of the monarch and the necessity of strong royal governance in The Indies resulted in the appointment of viceroys ("vice-kings"), the direct representation of the monarch, in both civil and ecclesiastical spheres. They were initially a scarce commodity, but horse breeding became an active industry. Another major export product was cochineal, a color-fast red dye made from dried bugs living on cacti. "The 1539 inquisition and trial of Don Carlos of Texcoco in early Mexico.". "California Indian Characteristics". In 1810 Mexico declared independence, with the Mexican War of Independence following for over a decade. We had everything in our hands and we were free to do anything we wanted. The loss of these territories ended Spanish rule in the Americas. Spaniards persuaded the leaders of subordinate city-states and one city-state never conquered by the Aztecs, Tlaxcala, to join them in huge numbers, with thousands, perhaps tens of thousands of indigenous warriors. Spanish was first introduced to the Philippines in 1565, when the conquistador, Miguel López de Legazpi founded the first Spanish settlement on the island of Cebu.  These elites played an intermediary role between the Spanish rulers and indigenous commoners. The governors exercised judicial ordinary functions of first instance, and prerogatives of government legislating by ordinances. Venezuela's historical development during the colonial period took place in six subregions. As what the world knows, Philippines is the only Catholic country in Southeast Asia; thus, most of our structures all over the archipelago were Catholic Churches due to the influence of Catholicism. Though influenced by Spanish traditions from the Iberian peninsula, the culture that emerged in the colonial New World was a mixture of European, African, and local Native customs. ‘’The Aztecs under Spanish Rule. Spanish colonial architecture reflects Filipino identity mostly through the Religious Architecture. , By contrast, the indigenous population plummeted by an estimated 80% in the first century and a half following Columbus's voyages, primarily through the spread of disease, forced labor and slavery for resource extraction, and Missionization. Spanish Colonial Era. Warren, J. For the Spanish, these populations were there for their exploitation, to supply their own settlements with foodstuffs, but more importantly for the Spanish, to extract mineral wealth or produce another valuable commodity for Spanish enrichment. In the extension of Spanish sovereignty to its overseas territories, authority for expeditions (entradas) of discovery, conquest, and settlement resided in the monarchy. These governorates, also called as provinces, were the basic of the territorial government of the Indies, and arose as the territories were conquered and colonized. Charles also adopted this flag when he became Charles I of Spain (1516-1556). For all practical purposes, this was slavery. The vast majority of the decline happened after the Spanish period, during the Mexican and US periods of Californian history (1821–1910), with the most dramatic collapse (200,000 to 25,000) occurring in the US period (1846–1910).. The officials of the royal treasury included up to four positions: a tesorero (treasurer), who guarded money on hand and made payments; a contador (accountant or comptroller), who recorded income and payments, maintained records, and interpreted royal instructions; a factor, who guarded weapons and supplies belonging to the king, and disposed of tribute collected in the province; and a veedor (overseer), who was responsible for contacts with native inhabitants of the province, and collected the king's share of any war booty. Spain's colonies in the New World were, legally, the personal patrimony of the king, and he held absolute control over all matters in Ecuador. In 1500 the city of Nueva Cádiz was founded on the island of Cubagua, Venezuela, followed by the founding of Santa Cruz by Alonso de Ojeda in present-day Guajira peninsula. The Spanish colonization of the Americas began under the Crown of Castile and spearheaded by the Spanish conquistadors. During the early Age of Discovery, the diocesan clergy in Spain was poorly educated and considered of a low moral standing, and the Catholic Monarchs were reluctant to allow them to spearhead evangelization. The population of the Native American population in Mexico declined by an estimated 90% (reduced to 1–2.5 million people) by the early 17th century. Queen Isabel put an end to formal slavery, declaring the indigenous to be vassals of the crown, but Spaniards' exploitation continued. In Peru, the Cerro Rico's ore was processed from the local mercury mine of Huancavelica, while in Mexico mercury was imported from the Almadén mercury mine in Spain. During the pre-colonial period, it was the dominant pattern of organization of the indigenous communities. Stanford University Press, 2004. Stay tuned for part 2 as that will discuss events from the Dagohoy revolt to the events around the 1870's. , The exploitation and demographic catastrophe that indigenous peoples experienced from Spanish rule in the Caribbean also occurred Norman: University of Oklahoma Press|1985. The utter devastation caused by the white man was literally incredible, and not until the population figures are examined does the extent of the havoc become evident. 1731. The jagged edges of the cross on the Spanish flag represent these trees with the branched lopped off. It was translated quickly to English and became the basis for the anti-Spanish writings, collectively known as the Black Legend.  The overwhelming cause of the decline in both Mexico and Peru was infectious diseases, such as smallpox and measles, although the brutality of the Encomienda also played a significant part in the population decline. The Spanish naval ships began to fly this flag in the early 1500s in honor of their king.  Ecclesiastics also functioned as administrators overseas in the early Caribbean period, particularly Frey Nicolás de Ovando, who was sent to investigate the administration of Francisco de Bobadilla, the governor appointed to succeed Christopher Columbus. The Colonial Era The following 300 years mark the Colonial era, when the territories of New Spain were expanded under the control of local viceroys, named by the Spanish crown. Beginning with the 1492 arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean and gaining control over more territory for over three centuries, the Spanish Empire would expand across the Caribbean Islands, half of South America, most of Central America and much of North America. Colonial Culture. Works by historians in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have expanded the understanding of the impact of the Spanish conquest and changes during the more than three hundred years of Spanish rule. Lockhart, James. Spaniards had seen the disappearance of the indigenous populations in the Caribbean, and with that, the disappearance of their main source of wealth, propelling Spaniards to expand their regions of control. Religious orders had their own internal regulations and leadership. â¢ Literature started to flourish during his time. The two main areas of Spanish settlement after 1550 were Mexico and Peru, the sites of the Aztec and Inca indigenous civilizations. , Most Spanish settlers came to the Indies as permanent residents, established families and businesses, and sought advancement in the colonial system, such as membership of cabildos, so that they were in the hands of local, American-born (crillo) elites. The Spanish took advantage of a recent civil war between the factions of the two brothers Emperor Atahualpa and Huáscar, and the enmity of indigenous nations the Incas had subjugated, such as the Huancas, Chachapoyas, and Cañaris. Colonial Culture. In 1542 Las Casas wrote a damning account of this genocide, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. Far more famous now is Lope de Aguirre, who led a mutiny against Ursúa, who was murdered. The Colonial Era. The leader of an expedition, the adelantado was a senior with material wealth and standing who could persuade the crown to issue him a license for an expedition. Ferdinand Magellan was the first European recorded to have landed in the Philippines. White was the distinctive color of French Royalty, and Burgundy was a French state. "John Francis Bannon and the Historiography of the Spanish Borderlands: Retrospect and Prospect. Sort by: Top Voted. In the early colonial period, the transatlantic import-export trade based on sliver was controlled by Spanish merchants who visited the Americas for short periods of time.  1492: The Conquest of Paradise stars Gerard Depardieu as Columbus and Sigorney Weaver as Queen Isabel. The Spanish Colonial Era in Texas Before Texas was one of the most populous and culturally vibrant states in the United States, Texas was part of New Spain, a colony in the Spanish Empire. Although today Buenos Aires at the mouth of Rio de la Plata is a major metropolis, it held no interest for Spaniards and the 1535-36 settlement failed and was abandoned by 1541. 1531); Guadalajara (1531-42); Valladolid (now Morelia), (1529-41); Antequera (now Oaxaca(1525-29); Campeche (1541); and Mérida. $115.00. Princeton University Press, 1984. Cook, Noble David. The expansion of Spain’s territory took place under the Catholic Monarchs Isabella of Castile, Queen of Castile and her husband King Ferdinand, King of Aragon, whose marriage marked the beginning of Spanish power beyond the Iberian peninsula. Bolivia's Colonial Era 1500-1800 A.D. Bolivia's history changed dramatically when in 1532 the Spanish defeated the great Incas, and other ethnic groups that had historically inhabited the area. One was by Francisco Hernández de Córdoba in 1517, another by Juan de Grijalva in 1518, which brought promising news of possibilities there. â¢The friars taught them about Christianity, the language and customs of Spain, and Spanish farming methods.  This direct correspondence of the Audiencia with the Council of the Indies made it possible for the Council to give the Audiencia direction on general aspects of government.. Corregidores collected the tribute from indigenous communities and regulated forced indigenous labor. What best defines the Spanish Colonial Era? "Cook, Sherburne F. 1976b. Spain sought similar wealth, and authorized Columbus’s voyage sailing west. Spanish colonization. Powers, Stephen. Also cochineal is technically an animal product, the insects were placed on cacti and harvested by the hands of indigenous laborers. The cities were Spanish and the countryside indigenous. The dearth of Spanish women at the start of the Colonial era led to numerous unions between Indian women and Spaniards. He became deeply indebted to the German Welser and Fugger banking families. In 1809 the first declarations of independence from Spanish rule occurred in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Viceroyalties were the largest territory unit of administration in the civil and religious spheres and the boundaries of civil and ecclesiastical governance coincided by design, to ensure crown control over both bureaucracies. Melville, Elinor G.K. A Plague of Sheep: Environmental Consequences of the Conquest of Mexico.  Although constituted as the highest judicial authority in their territorial jurisdiction, they also had executive and legislative authority, and served as the executive on an interim basis.  He is a controversial figure in the current era, with an equestrian statue commemorating him removed from public display in 2020.. G. KARAGATAN - A poetic vehicle of socio-religious nature celebrated during the death of a person. A caste system, like that used in the Spanish America, existed in the Philippines, with some explicit differences. By maintaining hierarchical divisions within communities, indigenous noblemen were the direct interface between the indigenous and Spanish spheres and kept their positions so long as they continued to be loyal to the Spanish crown. Mounted indigenous warriors were significant foes for Spaniards. These were often led by secondary leaders, such as Pedro de Alvarado. We have included primary sources, databases, and print material that may be of … Viceroys were of high social standing, almost without exception born in Spain, and served fixed terms. Potosí (founded 1545) was in the zone of dense indigenous settlement, so that labor could be mobilized on traditional patterns to extract the ore. An important element for productive mining was mercury for processing high-grade ore. Peru had a source in Huancavelica (founded 1572), while Mexico had to rely on mercury imported from Spain.  With the 1508 papal grant to the crown of the Patronato real, the crown, rather than the pope, exercised absolute power over the Catholic Church in the Americas and the Philippines, a privilege the crown zealously guarded against erosion or incursion. 25. â¢ The Spaniards colonized the Philippines for more than three centuries. Though he was not the first explorer to set foot there, nor did he ever come to understand the dimensions of his discovery, it was Christopher Columbus who first published an account of his findings. Burkholder, Mark A. and Lyman L. Johnson. Florida's Spanish colonial heritage began nearly 100 years before Jamestown in 1513, when Juan Ponce de León landed, and ended when Florida became a territory of the United States in 1821. The Philippine Economy During the Spanish Colonial Period. As the colonial economy became more diversified and less dependent on these mechanisms for the accumulation of wealth, the indigenous noblemen became less important for the economy. Brown, Kendall W., "The Spanish Imperial Mercury Trade and the American Mining Expansion Under the Bourbon Monarchy," in, Van Ausdal, Shawn, and Robert W. Wilcox. That was of enslaved Africans. In the following years the conquistadors and indigenous allies extended control over Greater Andes Region. , One source claims the Spanish conquest was responsible for 1,400,000 to 2,300,000 deaths explicitly excluding tens of millions of deaths from New World disease; while Rudolph Rummel claims that 2 to 15 million indigenous peoples where killed by what he calls "democide"-(government caused murder) in the colonization of the Americas mostly in Latin America-(mostly implying anywhere from just over half to all but 1 so around 1,000,001 to 14,999,999 deaths.). The crown had authority to draw the boundaries for dioceses and parishes. False. Jun 8, 2017 What is it about the allure of a historic house? According to the French historian Jean Dumont The Valladolid debate was a major turning point in world history “In that moment in Spain appeared the dawn of the human rights”. Spanish conquerors holding grants of indigenous labor in encomienda ruthlessly exploited them. None of the areas dominated the others in terms of population or natural resources. The spurt continued unabated until the Cavite Revolt in 1872.  Expeditions required authorization by the crown, which laid out the terms of such expedition. Disease and overwork, disruption of family life and the agricultural cycle (which caused severe food shortages to Spaniards dependent on them) rapidly decimated the indigenous population. The Spanish network needed a port city so that inland settlements could be connected by sea to Spain. Once on the mainland, where there were dense indigenous populations in urban settlements, the Spanish could build a Spanish settlement on the same site, dating its foundation to when that occurred. $135.00. “The Spanish Borderlands, Historiography Redux.”, Spanish Exploration and Conquest of North America, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 16:36. The Franciscans took over some former Jesuit missions and continued the expansion of areas incorporated into the empire. The most prominent example is in Puebla, Mexico, when Bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza was driven from his bishopric by the Jesuits. In those days, the flag of a country was actually the flag of the ruling house. These styles are associated with the houses, churches and government buildings of the period from about 1600 through the 19th century. Aguirre subsequently wrote a letter to Philip II bitterly complaining about the treatment of conquerors like himself in the wake of the assertion of crown control over Peru. With a hostile indigenous population, no obvious mineral or other exploitable resources, and little strategic value, Chile was a fringe area of colonial Spanish America, hemmed in geographically by the Andes to the east, Pacific Ocean to the west, and indigenous to the south.  Besides court of justice, the Audiencias had functions of government as counterweight the authority of the viceroys, since they could communicate with both the Council of the Indies and the king without the requirement of requesting authorization from the viceroy.  Indigenous noblemen were particularly important in the early period of colonization, since the economy of the encomienda was initially built on the extraction of tribute and labor from the commoners in their communities. The New Spanish Colonial Period (1521-1821) The Philippine Islands first came to the attention of Europeans when Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed there in 1521, claiming the lands for Spain. During the Spanish colonial period from the 16th to the 19th century, the racial mixture in the Philippines occurred on a quite smaller scale as compared to the other Spanish territories. Literature started to flourish during his time. The composition of the expedition was the standard pattern, with a senior leader, and participating men investing in the enterprise with the full expectation of rewards if they did not lose their lives. The early Caribbean proved a massive disappointment for Spaniards, who had hoped to find mineral wealth and exploitable indigenous populations. Ore was crushed with the aid of mules and then mercury could be applied to draw out the pure silver. These men representing the Seville-based trading companies which had an effective monopoly on this trade. During the Napoleonic Peninsular War in Europe between France and Spain, assemblies called juntas were established to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII of Spain. Participants supplied their own armor and weapons, and those who had a horse received two shares, one for himself, the second recognizing the value of the horse as a machine of war. The film starred Robert De Niro, Jeremy Irons, and Liam Neeson and It won an Academy Award. He was driven from his home by the thousands, starved, beaten, raped, and murdered with impunity. The crown established control over trade and emigration to the Indies with the 1503 establishment the Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) in Seville. The pope was the head of the Catholic Church, but the granting of the Patronato Real to the Spanish monarchy gave the king the power of appointment (patronage) of ecclesiastics. The Spanish period. In Peru, the attempt of the newly appointed viceroy, Blasco Núñez Vela, to implement the New Laws so soon after the conquest sparked a revolt by conquerors against the viceroy and the viceroy was killed in 1546. $25.00 shipping. Cumaná in Venezuela was the first permanent settlement founded by Europeans in the mainland Americas, in 1501 by Franciscan friars, but due to successful attacks by the indigenous people, it had to be refounded several times, until Diego Hernández de Serpa's foundation in 1569. True or false? The crown set the indigenous communities legally apart from Spaniards (as well as Blacks), who comprised the República de Españoles, with the creation of the República de Indios. During the Bourbon era, even when the crown systematically appointed peninsular-born Spaniards to royal posts rather than American-born, the cabildos remained in the hands of local elites. New York: Cambridge University Press 1994. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBrading1971 (, Kuethe, Allan J. $100.00. Restall, Matthew.  Religious orders along with the Jesuits then embarked on further evangelization in frontier regions of the empire. The crown was open to limiting the inheritance of encomiendas in perpetuity as a way to extinguish the coalescence of a group of Spaniards impinging on royal power. Archbishop Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca, Isabella's confessor, was tasked with reining in Columbus's independence. The Viceroyalty of Perú was established in 1542. He was defeated by Lapu-Lapu, a native chieftain, at the Battle of Mactan, where he died.  Until the eighteenth century, there were just two viceroyalties, with the Viceroyalty of New Spain (founded 1535) administering North America, a portion of the Caribbean, and the Philippines, and the viceroyalty of Peru (founded 1542) having jurisdiction over Spanish South America. 4. Saint Augustine, FL Merchants formed an important element in the Spanish population. Though influenced by Spanish traditions from the Iberian peninsula, the culture that emerged in the colonial New World was a mixture of European, African, and local Native customs. “House of Welser” in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. Important ones include Santiago de Guatemala (1524); Puebla (1531); Querétaro (ca. 5, pp. The early literary forms of the Philippines were epics, legends, riddles and proverbs which were told and retold by the natives. Although often the participants, conquistadors, are now termed “soldiers”, they were not paid soldiers in ranks of an army, but rather soldiers of fortune, who joined an expedition with the expectation of profiting from it. Audiencia judgments and other functions became more tied to the locality and less to the crown and impartial justice. Although their primary focus was on religious conversion, missionaries served as "diplomatic agents, peace emissaries to hostile tribes ... and they were also expected to hold the line against nomadic nonmissionary Indians as well as other European powers. Natural Texas and It's People Era. Europeans immigrated from various parts of Spain, and also initially more men than women. Eventually, the army also began to fly this flag, and it came to represent Spain. In the twentieth century, there have been a number of films depicting the life of Christopher Columbus.  In addition, the Casa de Contratación took charge of the fiscal organization, and of the organization and judicial control of the trade with the Indies. In Mexico, Bishop Juan de Zumárraga prosecuted and had executed in 1539 a Nahua lord, known as Don Carlos of Texcoco for apostasy and sedition for having converted to Christianity and then renounced his conversion and urged others to do so as well. The Spanish brought new crops for cultivation. Thus, it is sometimes referred to as the Spanish Colonial Flag. , The other frontier institution was the religious mission to convert the indigenous populations. In Medieval times, however, they had experienced a history quite different from that of other southern Europeans. Spanish Texas (Tejas) was a colonial province within the northeastern mainland region of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The new territories extended through most of Central America and much of the south and west of what is now the United States. Icons brought by the friars were used as models for sculpture.  The history of the Guaraní has also been the subject of a recent study.  An earlier expedition that left in 1527 was led by Pánfilo Naváez, who was killed early on. , The Valladolid debate (1550–1551) was the first moral debate in European history to discuss the rights and treatment of a colonized people by colonizers. Although the language was never compulsory while under Spanish colonial rule, Spanish was at one time spoken â¦ 5, p. 253. "Latinized" America was a diverse, capable, and often complex society. Dominican friar Antonio de Montesinos denounced Spanish cruelty and abuse in a sermon in 1511, which comes down to us in the writings of Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas. The image of mounted Araucanians capturing and carrying off white women was the embodiment of Spanish ideas of civilization and barbarism. The Spanish founded towns in the Caribbean, on Hispaniola and Cuba, on a pattern that became spatially similar throughout Spanish America. 1, pp. Era in Texas History characterized by the building of missions to confirm Spanish land claims. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The leader of the expedition pledged the larger share of capital to the enterprise, which in many ways functioned as a commercial firm. 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